The case against tobacco



Charlotte Observer

Posted at 11:47 p.m. EDT Friday, July 21, 2000
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Tax differential fuels smuggling

                                     By ANN DOSS HELMS

                  Cigarette smuggling is a multimillion-dollar racket that's been linked to
                  organized crime in the Middle East, Russia and Asia.

                  The basic premise is this: Buy low, sell high. In this case, that means
                  buying cigarettes in low-tax states and reselling them illegally in high-tax

                  On Friday, federal authorities in Charlotte charged 18 people in
                  connection with a scheme to smuggle cigarettes out of the state and
                  funnel the profits to Hezbollah, an international terrorist group.

                  FBI officials won't say how much was made in the smuggling conspiracy.
                  But six-figure profits are easily had.

                  For example, North Carolina taxes cigarettes at 5 cents a pack,
                  Michigan at 75 cents. Smugglers who buy here and sell there can
                  pocket the mark-up instead of paying the tax. A medium-sized van full of
                  cigarettes brings $8,000 to $10,000, according to Richard Fox of the
                  federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

                  In 1978, the Contraband Cigarette Trafficking Act made it a federal
                  crime to take more than 60,000 cigarettes, or 300 cartons, from one
                  state to another without proof that state taxes were paid.

                  But the wide range of state taxes, from 2.5 cents a pack in Virginia to $1
                  in Alaska, make the profit worth the risk to some.

                  "ATF has uncovered involvement in cigarette smuggling by Russian,
                  Middle Eastern and Asian organized crime groups," ATF Director John
                  Magaw told a House committee in 1997.

                  Tobacco-growing states tend to have lower taxes (South Carolina's is 7
                  cents a pack), and thus become a smuggling source.

                  An Iredell County sheriff's detective pegged JR Tobacco in Statesville
                  as a source in 1995, when he noticed people paying cash for large
                  quantities of cigarettes and loading them into vehicles with out-of-state
                  license plates, according to a federal affidavit released Friday.
                  Investigations that followed eventually led to Friday's arrests.

Study: Smoking May Cause Depression

 AP Medical Writer

 CHICAGO (AP) A new study suggests smoking
 may be a cause of depression in teen-agers,
 contradicting the current thinking that says
 depressed people may smoke to feel better.

 The study found that teens who smoked were about
 four times more likely to develop highly depressed
 symptoms during a year's time.

 The researchers speculated that nicotine or other
 smoking byproducts may have a depressive effect
 on the central nervous system.

 The study adds to a growing body of conflicting
 research on links between tobacco and the mind.

 ``The thing that bolsters the idea is that there is
 evidence that anti-depressant drugs are helpful in
 treating nicotine addiction,'' said Dr. Elizabeth
 Goodman, an adolescent-medicine specialist at Children's Hospital Medical
 Center of Cincinnati who led the study.

 The study appears in the October issue of Pediatrics, the monthly journal of the
 American Academy of Pediatrics.

 Other researchers have linked teen smoking with suicide, and smoking with
 depression in adults, but they disagree over whether tobacco use is a cause or
 merely a result of a depressed state.

 Most people think that those who tend to be depressed ``self-medicate by
 smoking. This is probably not the case,'' said Naomi Breslau, director of research
 at Henry Ford Health Systems in Detroit.

 Breslau's own research also has suggested tobacco may somehow contribute to
 depression. She said that while the new findings do not prove smoking is a
 cause, they strongly support that theory.

 ``They find absolutely no evidence that depressive symptoms per se increase
 the risk for smoking,'' she said. ``They do find very clear evidence in the other

 She added: ``It's just one more adverse effect of smoking on health.''

 The study relied not on doctors' diagnoses but on teen-agers' reports of having
 symptoms suggestive of depression.

 The study analyzed data from teens questioned in 1995 and 1996 in a national
 study on adolescent health. It included 8,704 teens who were not initially
 depressed and 6,947 teens who were not initially smokers.

 Evidence suggesting depression was a cause rather than a result of smoking
 evaporated when the researchers took into account other factors that may have
 prompted the teens to start smoking, such as friends' use of tobacco and poor

 Current smokers included those who smoked as little as one cigarette in the
 previous month and those who smoked a pack a day or more. The researchers
 did not examine whether teens who smoked the most were the most likely to
 develop depression, but some of their other findings suggest that may have been
 the case.

 After a year's time, 4.8 percent of the nonsmokers had developed depressed
 symptoms compared with 12 percent of those who initially smoked at least a
 pack a day.

 Linda Pederson, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and
 Prevention's office on smoking and health, said the study was well-done, larger
 and more nationally representative than previous research that reached
 similar conclusions.


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